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How To End The Cryptocurrency Exchange "Wild West" Without Crippling Innovation


In case you haven't noticed the consultation paper, staff notice, and report on Quadriga, regulators are now clamping down on Canadian cryptocurrency exchanges. The OSC and other regulatory bodies are still interested in industry feedback. They have not put forward any official regulation yet. Below are some ideas/insights and a proposed framework.



Many of you have limited time to read the full proposal, so here are the highlights:

Offline Multi-Signature

Effective standards to prevent both internal and external theft. Exchange operators are trained and certified, and have a legal responsibility to users.

Regular Transparent Audits

Provides visibility to Canadians that their funds are fully backed on the exchange, while protecting privacy and sensitive platform information.

Insurance Requirements

Establishment of basic insurance standards/strategy, to expand over time. Removing risk to exchange users of any hot wallet theft.


Background and Justifications


Cold Storage Custody/Management
After reviewing close to 100 cases, all thefts tend to break down into more or less the same set of problems:
• Funds stored online or in a smart contract,
• Access controlled by one person or one system,
• 51% attacks (rare),
• Funds sent to the wrong address (also rare), or
• Some combination of the above.
For the first two cases, practical solutions exist and are widely implemented on exchanges already. Offline multi-signature solutions are already industry standard. No cases studied found an external theft or exit scam involving an offline multi-signature wallet implementation. Security can be further improved through minimum numbers of signatories, background checks, providing autonomy and legal protections to each signatory, establishing best practices, and a training/certification program.
The last two transaction risks occur more rarely, and have never resulted in a loss affecting the actual users of the exchange. In all cases to date where operators made the mistake, they've been fully covered by the exchange platforms.
• 51% attacks generally only occur on blockchains with less security. The most prominent cases have been Bitcoin Gold and Ethereum Classic. The simple solution is to enforce deposit limits and block delays such that a 51% attack is not cost-effective.
• The risk of transactions to incorrect addresses can be eliminated by a simple test transaction policy on large transactions. By sending a small amount of funds prior to any large withdrawals/transfers as a standard practice, the accuracy of the wallet address can be validated.
The proposal covers all loss cases and goes beyond, while avoiding significant additional costs, risks, and limitations which may be associated with other frameworks like SOC II.

On The Subject of Third Party Custodians
Many Canadian platforms are currently experimenting with third party custody. From the standpoint of the exchange operator, they can liberate themselves from some responsibility of custody, passing that off to someone else. For regulators, it puts crypto in similar categorization to oil, gold, and other commodities, with some common standards. Platform users would likely feel greater confidence if the custodian was a brand they recognized. If the custodian was knowledgeable and had a decent team that employed multi-sig, they could keep assets safe from internal theft. With the right protections in place, this could be a great solution for many exchanges, particularly those that lack the relevant experience or human resources for their own custody systems.
However, this system is vulnerable to anyone able to impersonate the exchange operators. You may have a situation where different employees who don't know each other that well are interacting between different companies (both the custodian and all their customers which presumably isn't just one exchange). A case study of what can go wrong in this type of environment might be Bitpay, where the CEO was tricked out of 5000 bitcoins over 3 separate payments by a series of emails sent legitimately from a breached computer of another company CEO. It's also still vulnerable to the platform being compromised, as in the really large $70M Bitfinex hack, where the third party Bitgo held one key in a multi-sig wallet. The hacker simply authorized the withdrawal using the same credentials as Bitfinex (requesting Bitgo to sign multiple withdrawal transactions). This succeeded even with the use of multi-sig and two heavily security-focused companies, due to the lack of human oversight (basically, hot wallet). Of course, you can learn from these cases and improve the security, but so can hackers improve their deception and at the end of the day, both of these would have been stopped by the much simpler solution of a qualified team who knew each other and employed multi-sig with properly protected keys. It's pretty hard to beat a human being who knows the business and the typical customer behaviour (or even knows their customers personally) at spotting fraud, and the proposed multi-sig means any hacker has to get through the scrutiny of 3 (or more) separate people, all of whom would have proper training including historical case studies.
There are strong arguments both for and against using use of third party custodians. The proposal sets mandatory minimum custody standards would apply regardless if the cold wallet signatories are exchange operators, independent custodians, or a mix of both.

On The Subject Of Insurance
ShakePay has taken the first steps into this new realm (congratulations). There is no question that crypto users could be better protected by the right insurance policies, and it certainly feels better to transact with insured platforms. The steps required to obtain insurance generally place attention in valuable security areas, and in this case included a review from CipherTrace. One of the key solutions in traditional finance comes from insurance from entities such as the CDIC.
However, historically, there wasn't found any actual insurance payout to any cryptocurrency exchange, and there are notable cases where insurance has not paid. With Bitpay, for example, the insurance agent refused because the issue happened to the third party CEO's computer instead of anything to do with Bitpay itself. With the Youbit exchange in South Korea, their insurance claim was denied, and the exchange ultimately ended up instead going bankrupt with all user's funds lost. To quote Matt Johnson in the original Lloyd's article: “You can create an insurance policy that protects no one – you know there are so many caveats to the policy that it’s not super protective.”
ShakePay's insurance was only reported to cover their cold storage, and “physical theft of the media where the private keys are held”. Physical theft has never, in the history of cryptocurrency exchange cases reviewed, been reported as the cause of loss. From the limited information of the article, ShakePay made it clear their funds are in the hands of a single US custodian, and at least part of their security strategy is to "decline[] to confirm the custodian’s name on the record". While this prevents scrutiny of the custodian, it's pretty silly to speculate that a reasonably competent hacking group couldn't determine who the custodian is. A far more common infiltration strategy historically would be social engineering, which has succeeded repeatedly. A hacker could trick their way into ShakePay's systems and request a fraudulent withdrawal, impersonate ShakePay and request the custodian to move funds, or socially engineer their way into the custodian to initiate the withdrawal of multiple accounts (a payout much larger than ShakePay) exploiting the standard procedures (for example, fraudulently initiating or override the wallet addresses of a real transfer). In each case, nothing was physically stolen and the loss is therefore not covered by insurance.
In order for any insurance to be effective, clear policies have to be established about what needs to be covered. Anything short of that gives Canadians false confidence that they are protected when they aren't in any meaningful way. At this time, the third party insurance market does not appear to provide adequate options or coverage, and effort is necessary to standardize custody standards, which is a likely first step in ultimately setting up an insurance framework.
A better solution compared to third party insurance providers might be for Canadian exchange operators to create their own collective insurance fund, or a specific federal organization similar to the CDIC. Such an organization would have a greater interest or obligation in paying out actual cases, and that would be it's purpose rather than maximizing it's own profit. This would be similar to the SAFU which Binance has launched, except it would cover multiple exchanges. There is little question whether the SAFU would pay out given a breach of Binance, and a similar argument could be made for a insurance fund managed by a collective of exchange operators or a government organization. While a third party insurance provider has the strong market incentive to provide the absolute minimum coverage and no market incentive to payout, an entity managed by exchange operators would have incentive to protect the reputation of exchange operators/the industry, and the government should have the interest of protecting Canadians.

On The Subject of Fractional Reserve
There is a long history of fractional reserve failures, from the first banks in ancient times, through the great depression (where hundreds of fractional reserve banks failed), right through to the 2008 banking collapse referenced in the first bitcoin block. The fractional reserve system allows banks to multiply the money supply far beyond the actual cash (or other assets) in existence, backed only by a system of debt obligations of others. Safely supporting a fractional reserve system is a topic of far greater complexity than can be addressed by a simple policy, and when it comes to cryptocurrency, there is presently no entity reasonably able to bail anyone out in the event of failure. Therefore, this framework is addressed around entities that aim to maintain 100% backing of funds.
There may be some firms that desire but have failed to maintain 100% backing. In this case, there are multiple solutions, including outside investment, merging with other exchanges, or enforcing a gradual restoration plan. All of these solutions are typically far better than shutting down the exchange, and there are multiple cases where they've been used successfully in the past.

Proof of Reserves/Transparency/Accountability
Canadians need to have visibility into the backing on an ongoing basis.
The best solution for crypto-assets is a Proof of Reserve. Such ideas go back all the way to 2013, before even Mt. Gox. However, no Canadian exchange has yet implemented such a system, and only a few international exchanges (CoinFloor in the UK being an example) have. Many firms like Kraken, BitBuy, and now ShakePay use the Proof of Reserve term to refer to lesser proofs which do not actually cryptographically prove the full backing of all user assets on the blockchain. In order for a Proof of Reserve to be effective, it must actually be a complete proof, and it needs to be understood by the public that is expected to use it. Many firms have expressed reservations about the level of transparency required in a complete Proof of Reserve (for example Kraken here). While a complete Proof of Reserves should be encouraged, and there are some solutions in the works (ie TxQuick), this is unlikely to be suitable universally for all exchange operators and users.
Given the limitations, and that firms also manage fiat assets, a more traditional audit process makes more sense. Some Canadian exchanges (CoinSquare, CoinBerry) have already subjected themselves to annual audits. However, these results are not presently shared publicly, and there is no guarantee over the process including all user assets or the integrity and independence of the auditor. The auditor has been typically not known, and in some cases, the identity of the auditor is protected by a NDA. Only in one case (BitBuy) was an actual report generated and publicly shared. There has been no attempt made to validate that user accounts provided during these audits have been complete or accurate. A fraudulent fractional exchange, or one which had suffered a breach they were unwilling to publicly accept (see CoinBene), could easily maintain a second set of books for auditors or simply exclude key accounts to pass an individual audit.
The proposed solution would see a reporting standard which includes at a minimum - percentage of backing for each asset relative to account balances and the nature of how those assets are stored, with ownership proven by the auditor. The auditor would also publicly provide a "hash list", which they independently generate from the accounts provided by the exchange. Every exchange user can then check their information against this public "hash list". A hash is a one-way form of encryption, which fully protects the private information, yet allows anyone who knows that information already to validate that it was included. Less experienced users can take advantage of public tools to calculate the hash from their information (provided by the exchange), and thus have certainty that the auditor received their full balance information. Easy instructions can be provided.
Auditors should be impartial, their identities and process public, and they should be rotated so that the same auditor is never used twice in a row. Balancing the cost of auditing against the needs for regular updates, a 6 month cycle likely makes the most sense.

Hot Wallet Management
The best solution for hot wallets is not to use them. CoinBerry reportedly uses multi-sig on all withdrawals, and Bitmex is an international example known for their structure devoid of hot wallets.
However, many platforms and customers desire fast withdrawal processes, and human validation has a cost of time and delay in this process.
A model of self-insurance or separate funds for hot wallets may be used in these cases. Under this model, a platform still has 100% of their client balance in cold storage and holds additional funds in hot wallets for quick withdrawal. Thus, the risk of those hot wallets is 100% on exchange operators and not affecting the exchange users. Since most platforms typically only have 1%-5% in hot wallets at any given time, it shouldn't be unreasonable to build/maintain these additional reserves over time using exchange fees or additional investment. Larger withdrawals would still be handled at regular intervals from the cold storage.
Hot wallet risks have historically posed a large risk and there is no established standard to guarantee secure hot wallets. When the government of South Korea dispatched security inspections to multiple exchanges, the results were still that 3 of them got hacked after the inspections. If standards develop such that an organization in the market is willing to insure the hot wallets, this could provide an acceptable alternative. Another option may be for multiple exchange operators to pool funds aside for a hot wallet insurance fund. Comprehensive coverage standards must be established and maintained for all hot wallet balances to make sure Canadians are adequately protected.

Current Draft Proposal

(1) Proper multi-signature cold wallet storage.
(a) Each private key is the personal and legal responsibility of one person - the “signatory”. Signatories have special rights and responsibilities to protect user assets. Signatories are trained and certified through a course covering (1) past hacking and fraud cases, (2) proper and secure key generation, and (3) proper safekeeping of private keys. All private keys must be generated and stored 100% offline by the signatory. If even one private keys is ever breached or suspected to be breached, the wallet must be regenerated and all funds relocated to a new wallet.
(b) All signatories must be separate background-checked individuals free of past criminal conviction. Canadians should have a right to know who holds their funds. All signing of transactions must take place with all signatories on Canadian soil or on the soil of a country with a solid legal system which agrees to uphold and support these rules (from an established white-list of countries which expands over time).
(c) 3-5 independent signatures are required for any withdrawal. There must be 1-3 spare signatories, and a maximum of 7 total signatories. The following are all valid combinations: 3of4, 3of5, 3of6, 4of5, 4of6, 4of7, 5of6, or 5of7.
(d) A security audit should be conducted to validate the cold wallet is set up correctly and provide any additional pertinent information. The primary purpose is to ensure that all signatories are acting independently and using best practices for private key storage. A report summarizing all steps taken and who did the audit will be made public. Canadians must be able to validate the right measures are in place to protect their funds.
(e) There is a simple approval process if signatories wish to visit any country outside Canada, with a potential whitelist of exempt countries. At most 2 signatories can be outside of aligned jurisdiction at any given time. All exchanges would be required to keep a compliant cold wallet for Canadian funds and have a Canadian office if they wish to serve Canadian customers.
(2) Regular and transparent solvency audits.
(a) An audit must be conducted at founding, after 3 months of operation, and at least once every 6 months to compare customer balances against all stored cryptocurrency and fiat balances. The auditor must be known, independent, and never the same twice in a row.
(b) An audit report will be published featuring the steps conducted in a readable format. This should be made available to all Canadians on the exchange website and on a government website. The report must include what percentage of each customer asset is backed on the exchange, and how those funds are stored.
(c) The auditor will independently produce a hash of each customer's identifying information and balance as they perform the audit. This will be made publicly available on the exchange and government website, along with simplified instructions that each customer can use to verify that their balance was included in the audit process.
(d) The audit needs to include a proof of ownership for any cryptocurrency wallets included. A satoshi test (spending a small amount) or partially signed transaction both qualify.
(e) Any platform without 100% reserves should be assessed on a regular basis by a government or industry watchdog. This entity should work to prevent any further drop, support any private investor to come in, or facilitate a merger so that 100% backing can be obtained as soon as possible.
(3) Protections for hot wallets and transactions.
(a) A standardized list of approved coins and procedures will be established to constitute valid cold storage wallets. Where a multi-sig process is not natively available, efforts will be undertaken to establish a suitable and stable smart contract standard. This list will be expanded and improved over time. Coins and procedures not on the list are considered hot wallets.
(b) Hot wallets can be backed by additional funds in cold storage or an acceptable third-party insurance provider with a comprehensive coverage policy.
(c) Exchanges are required to cover the full balance of all user funds as denominated in the same currency, or double the balance as denominated in bitcoin or CAD using an established trading rate. If the balance is ever insufficient due to market movements, the firm must rectify this within 24 hours by moving assets to cold storage or increasing insurance coverage.
(d) Any large transactions (above a set threshold) from cold storage to any new wallet addresses (not previously transacted with) must be tested with a smaller transaction first. Deposits of cryptocurrency must be limited to prevent economic 51% attacks. Any issues are to be covered by the exchange.
(e) Exchange platforms must provide suitable authentication for users, including making available approved forms of two-factor authentication. SMS-based authentication is not to be supported. Withdrawals must be blocked for 48 hours in the event of any account password change. Disputes on the negligence of exchanges should be governed by case law.

Steps Forward

Continued review of existing OSC feedback is still underway. More feedback and opinions on the framework and ideas as presented here are extremely valuable. The above is a draft and not finalized.
The process of further developing and bringing a suitable framework to protect Canadians will require the support of exchange operators, legal experts, and many others in the community. The costs of not doing such are tremendous. A large and convoluted framework, one based on flawed ideas or implementation, or one which fails to properly safeguard Canadians is not just extremely expensive and risky for all Canadians, severely limiting to the credibility and reputation of the industry, but an existential risk to many exchanges.
The responsibility falls to all of us to provide our insight and make our opinions heard on this critical matter. Please take the time to give your thoughts.
submitted by azoundria2 to QuadrigaInitiative [link] [comments]

Bitcoin (BTC)A Peer-to-Peer Electronic Cash System.

Bitcoin (BTC)A Peer-to-Peer Electronic Cash System.
  • Bitcoin (BTC) is a peer-to-peer cryptocurrency that aims to function as a means of exchange that is independent of any central authority. BTC can be transferred electronically in a secure, verifiable, and immutable way.
  • Launched in 2009, BTC is the first virtual currency to solve the double-spending issue by timestamping transactions before broadcasting them to all of the nodes in the Bitcoin network. The Bitcoin Protocol offered a solution to the Byzantine Generals’ Problem with a blockchain network structure, a notion first created by Stuart Haber and W. Scott Stornetta in 1991.
  • Bitcoin’s whitepaper was published pseudonymously in 2008 by an individual, or a group, with the pseudonym “Satoshi Nakamoto”, whose underlying identity has still not been verified.
  • The Bitcoin protocol uses an SHA-256d-based Proof-of-Work (PoW) algorithm to reach network consensus. Its network has a target block time of 10 minutes and a maximum supply of 21 million tokens, with a decaying token emission rate. To prevent fluctuation of the block time, the network’s block difficulty is re-adjusted through an algorithm based on the past 2016 block times.
  • With a block size limit capped at 1 megabyte, the Bitcoin Protocol has supported both the Lightning Network, a second-layer infrastructure for payment channels, and Segregated Witness, a soft-fork to increase the number of transactions on a block, as solutions to network scalability.

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1. What is Bitcoin (BTC)?

  • Bitcoin is a peer-to-peer cryptocurrency that aims to function as a means of exchange and is independent of any central authority. Bitcoins are transferred electronically in a secure, verifiable, and immutable way.
  • Network validators, whom are often referred to as miners, participate in the SHA-256d-based Proof-of-Work consensus mechanism to determine the next global state of the blockchain.
  • The Bitcoin protocol has a target block time of 10 minutes, and a maximum supply of 21 million tokens. The only way new bitcoins can be produced is when a block producer generates a new valid block.
  • The protocol has a token emission rate that halves every 210,000 blocks, or approximately every 4 years.
  • Unlike public blockchain infrastructures supporting the development of decentralized applications (Ethereum), the Bitcoin protocol is primarily used only for payments, and has only very limited support for smart contract-like functionalities (Bitcoin “Script” is mostly used to create certain conditions before bitcoins are used to be spent).

2. Bitcoin’s core features

For a more beginner’s introduction to Bitcoin, please visit Binance Academy’s guide to Bitcoin.

Unspent Transaction Output (UTXO) model

A UTXO transaction works like cash payment between two parties: Alice gives money to Bob and receives change (i.e., unspent amount). In comparison, blockchains like Ethereum rely on the account model.
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Nakamoto consensus

In the Bitcoin network, anyone can join the network and become a bookkeeping service provider i.e., a validator. All validators are allowed in the race to become the block producer for the next block, yet only the first to complete a computationally heavy task will win. This feature is called Proof of Work (PoW).
The probability of any single validator to finish the task first is equal to the percentage of the total network computation power, or hash power, the validator has. For instance, a validator with 5% of the total network computation power will have a 5% chance of completing the task first, and therefore becoming the next block producer.
Since anyone can join the race, competition is prone to increase. In the early days, Bitcoin mining was mostly done by personal computer CPUs.
As of today, Bitcoin validators, or miners, have opted for dedicated and more powerful devices such as machines based on Application-Specific Integrated Circuit (“ASIC”).
Proof of Work secures the network as block producers must have spent resources external to the network (i.e., money to pay electricity), and can provide proof to other participants that they did so.
With various miners competing for block rewards, it becomes difficult for one single malicious party to gain network majority (defined as more than 51% of the network’s hash power in the Nakamoto consensus mechanism). The ability to rearrange transactions via 51% attacks indicates another feature of the Nakamoto consensus: the finality of transactions is only probabilistic.
Once a block is produced, it is then propagated by the block producer to all other validators to check on the validity of all transactions in that block. The block producer will receive rewards in the network’s native currency (i.e., bitcoin) as all validators approve the block and update their ledgers.

The blockchain

Block production

The Bitcoin protocol utilizes the Merkle tree data structure in order to organize hashes of numerous individual transactions into each block. This concept is named after Ralph Merkle, who patented it in 1979.
With the use of a Merkle tree, though each block might contain thousands of transactions, it will have the ability to combine all of their hashes and condense them into one, allowing efficient and secure verification of this group of transactions. This single hash called is a Merkle root, which is stored in the Block Header of a block. The Block Header also stores other meta information of a block, such as a hash of the previous Block Header, which enables blocks to be associated in a chain-like structure (hence the name “blockchain”).
An illustration of block production in the Bitcoin Protocol is demonstrated below.

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Block time and mining difficulty

Block time is the period required to create the next block in a network. As mentioned above, the node who solves the computationally intensive task will be allowed to produce the next block. Therefore, block time is directly correlated to the amount of time it takes for a node to find a solution to the task. The Bitcoin protocol sets a target block time of 10 minutes, and attempts to achieve this by introducing a variable named mining difficulty.
Mining difficulty refers to how difficult it is for the node to solve the computationally intensive task. If the network sets a high difficulty for the task, while miners have low computational power, which is often referred to as “hashrate”, it would statistically take longer for the nodes to get an answer for the task. If the difficulty is low, but miners have rather strong computational power, statistically, some nodes will be able to solve the task quickly.
Therefore, the 10 minute target block time is achieved by constantly and automatically adjusting the mining difficulty according to how much computational power there is amongst the nodes. The average block time of the network is evaluated after a certain number of blocks, and if it is greater than the expected block time, the difficulty level will decrease; if it is less than the expected block time, the difficulty level will increase.

What are orphan blocks?

In a PoW blockchain network, if the block time is too low, it would increase the likelihood of nodes producingorphan blocks, for which they would receive no reward. Orphan blocks are produced by nodes who solved the task but did not broadcast their results to the whole network the quickest due to network latency.
It takes time for a message to travel through a network, and it is entirely possible for 2 nodes to complete the task and start to broadcast their results to the network at roughly the same time, while one’s messages are received by all other nodes earlier as the node has low latency.
Imagine there is a network latency of 1 minute and a target block time of 2 minutes. A node could solve the task in around 1 minute but his message would take 1 minute to reach the rest of the nodes that are still working on the solution. While his message travels through the network, all the work done by all other nodes during that 1 minute, even if these nodes also complete the task, would go to waste. In this case, 50% of the computational power contributed to the network is wasted.
The percentage of wasted computational power would proportionally decrease if the mining difficulty were higher, as it would statistically take longer for miners to complete the task. In other words, if the mining difficulty, and therefore targeted block time is low, miners with powerful and often centralized mining facilities would get a higher chance of becoming the block producer, while the participation of weaker miners would become in vain. This introduces possible centralization and weakens the overall security of the network.
However, given a limited amount of transactions that can be stored in a block, making the block time too longwould decrease the number of transactions the network can process per second, negatively affecting network scalability.

3. Bitcoin’s additional features

Segregated Witness (SegWit)

Segregated Witness, often abbreviated as SegWit, is a protocol upgrade proposal that went live in August 2017.
SegWit separates witness signatures from transaction-related data. Witness signatures in legacy Bitcoin blocks often take more than 50% of the block size. By removing witness signatures from the transaction block, this protocol upgrade effectively increases the number of transactions that can be stored in a single block, enabling the network to handle more transactions per second. As a result, SegWit increases the scalability of Nakamoto consensus-based blockchain networks like Bitcoin and Litecoin.
SegWit also makes transactions cheaper. Since transaction fees are derived from how much data is being processed by the block producer, the more transactions that can be stored in a 1MB block, the cheaper individual transactions become.
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The legacy Bitcoin block has a block size limit of 1 megabyte, and any change on the block size would require a network hard-fork. On August 1st 2017, the first hard-fork occurred, leading to the creation of Bitcoin Cash (“BCH”), which introduced an 8 megabyte block size limit.
Conversely, Segregated Witness was a soft-fork: it never changed the transaction block size limit of the network. Instead, it added an extended block with an upper limit of 3 megabytes, which contains solely witness signatures, to the 1 megabyte block that contains only transaction data. This new block type can be processed even by nodes that have not completed the SegWit protocol upgrade.
Furthermore, the separation of witness signatures from transaction data solves the malleability issue with the original Bitcoin protocol. Without Segregated Witness, these signatures could be altered before the block is validated by miners. Indeed, alterations can be done in such a way that if the system does a mathematical check, the signature would still be valid. However, since the values in the signature are changed, the two signatures would create vastly different hash values.
For instance, if a witness signature states “6,” it has a mathematical value of 6, and would create a hash value of 12345. However, if the witness signature were changed to “06”, it would maintain a mathematical value of 6 while creating a (faulty) hash value of 67890.
Since the mathematical values are the same, the altered signature remains a valid signature. This would create a bookkeeping issue, as transactions in Nakamoto consensus-based blockchain networks are documented with these hash values, or transaction IDs. Effectively, one can alter a transaction ID to a new one, and the new ID can still be valid.
This can create many issues, as illustrated in the below example:
  1. Alice sends Bob 1 BTC, and Bob sends Merchant Carol this 1 BTC for some goods.
  2. Bob sends Carols this 1 BTC, while the transaction from Alice to Bob is not yet validated. Carol sees this incoming transaction of 1 BTC to him, and immediately ships goods to B.
  3. At the moment, the transaction from Alice to Bob is still not confirmed by the network, and Bob can change the witness signature, therefore changing this transaction ID from 12345 to 67890.
  4. Now Carol will not receive his 1 BTC, as the network looks for transaction 12345 to ensure that Bob’s wallet balance is valid.
  5. As this particular transaction ID changed from 12345 to 67890, the transaction from Bob to Carol will fail, and Bob will get his goods while still holding his BTC.
With the Segregated Witness upgrade, such instances can not happen again. This is because the witness signatures are moved outside of the transaction block into an extended block, and altering the witness signature won’t affect the transaction ID.
Since the transaction malleability issue is fixed, Segregated Witness also enables the proper functioning of second-layer scalability solutions on the Bitcoin protocol, such as the Lightning Network.

Lightning Network

Lightning Network is a second-layer micropayment solution for scalability.
Specifically, Lightning Network aims to enable near-instant and low-cost payments between merchants and customers that wish to use bitcoins.
Lightning Network was conceptualized in a whitepaper by Joseph Poon and Thaddeus Dryja in 2015. Since then, it has been implemented by multiple companies. The most prominent of them include Blockstream, Lightning Labs, and ACINQ.
A list of curated resources relevant to Lightning Network can be found here.
In the Lightning Network, if a customer wishes to transact with a merchant, both of them need to open a payment channel, which operates off the Bitcoin blockchain (i.e., off-chain vs. on-chain). None of the transaction details from this payment channel are recorded on the blockchain, and only when the channel is closed will the end result of both party’s wallet balances be updated to the blockchain. The blockchain only serves as a settlement layer for Lightning transactions.
Since all transactions done via the payment channel are conducted independently of the Nakamoto consensus, both parties involved in transactions do not need to wait for network confirmation on transactions. Instead, transacting parties would pay transaction fees to Bitcoin miners only when they decide to close the channel.
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One limitation to the Lightning Network is that it requires a person to be online to receive transactions attributing towards him. Another limitation in user experience could be that one needs to lock up some funds every time he wishes to open a payment channel, and is only able to use that fund within the channel.
However, this does not mean he needs to create new channels every time he wishes to transact with a different person on the Lightning Network. If Alice wants to send money to Carol, but they do not have a payment channel open, they can ask Bob, who has payment channels open to both Alice and Carol, to help make that transaction. Alice will be able to send funds to Bob, and Bob to Carol. Hence, the number of “payment hubs” (i.e., Bob in the previous example) correlates with both the convenience and the usability of the Lightning Network for real-world applications.

Schnorr Signature upgrade proposal

Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm (“ECDSA”) signatures are used to sign transactions on the Bitcoin blockchain.
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However, many developers now advocate for replacing ECDSA with Schnorr Signature. Once Schnorr Signatures are implemented, multiple parties can collaborate in producing a signature that is valid for the sum of their public keys.
This would primarily be beneficial for network scalability. When multiple addresses were to conduct transactions to a single address, each transaction would require their own signature. With Schnorr Signature, all these signatures would be combined into one. As a result, the network would be able to store more transactions in a single block.
https://preview.redd.it/axg3wayag3151.png?width=1601&format=png&auto=webp&s=93d958fa6b0e623caa82ca71fe457b4daa88c71e
The reduced size in signatures implies a reduced cost on transaction fees. The group of senders can split the transaction fees for that one group signature, instead of paying for one personal signature individually.
Schnorr Signature also improves network privacy and token fungibility. A third-party observer will not be able to detect if a user is sending a multi-signature transaction, since the signature will be in the same format as a single-signature transaction.

4. Economics and supply distribution

The Bitcoin protocol utilizes the Nakamoto consensus, and nodes validate blocks via Proof-of-Work mining. The bitcoin token was not pre-mined, and has a maximum supply of 21 million. The initial reward for a block was 50 BTC per block. Block mining rewards halve every 210,000 blocks. Since the average time for block production on the blockchain is 10 minutes, it implies that the block reward halving events will approximately take place every 4 years.
As of May 12th 2020, the block mining rewards are 6.25 BTC per block. Transaction fees also represent a minor revenue stream for miners.
submitted by D-platform to u/D-platform [link] [comments]

Decred Journal — June 2018

Note: You can read this on GitHub, Medium or old Reddit to see the 207 links.

Development

The biggest announcement of the month was the new kind of decentralized exchange proposed by @jy-p of Company 0. The Community Discussions section considers the stakeholders' response.
dcrd: Peer management and connectivity improvements. Some work for improved sighash algo. A new optimization that gives 3-4x faster serving of headers, which is great for SPV. This was another step towards multipeer parallel downloads – check this issue for a clear overview of progress and planned work for next months (and some engineering delight). As usual, codebase cleanup, improvements to error handling, test infrastructure and test coverage.
Decrediton: work towards watching only wallets, lots of bugfixes and visual design improvements. Preliminary work to integrate SPV has begun.
Politeia is live on testnet! Useful links: announcement, introduction, command line voting example, example proposal with some votes, mini-guide how to compose a proposal.
Trezor: Decred appeared in the firmware update and on Trezor website, currently for testnet only. Next steps are mainnet support and integration in wallets. For the progress of Decrediton support you can track this meta issue.
dcrdata: Continued work on Insight API support, see this meta issue for progress overview. It is important for integrations due to its popularity. Ongoing work to add charts. A big database change to improve sorting on the Address page was merged and bumped version to 3.0. Work to visualize agenda voting continues.
Ticket splitting: 11-way ticket split from last month has voted (transaction).
Ethereum support in atomicswap is progressing and welcomes more eyeballs.
decred.org: revamped Press page with dozens of added articles, and a shiny new Roadmap page.
decredinfo.com: a new Decred dashboard by lte13. Reddit announcement here.
Dev activity stats for June: 245 active PRs, 184 master commits, 25,973 added and 13,575 deleted lines spread across 8 repositories. Contributions came from 2 to 10 developers per repository. (chart)

Network

Hashrate: growth continues, the month started at 15 and ended at 44 PH/s with some wild 30% swings on the way. The peak was 53.9 PH/s.
F2Pool was the leader varying between 36% and 59% hashrate, followed by coinmine.pl holding between 18% and 29%. In response to concerns about its hashrate share, F2Pool made a statement that they will consider measures like rising the fees to prevent growing to 51%.
Staking: 30-day average ticket price is 94.7 DCR (+3.4). The price was steadily rising from 90.7 to 95.8 peaking at 98.1. Locked DCR grew from 3.68 to 3.81 million DCR, the highest value was 3.83 million corresponding to 47.87% of supply (+0.7% from previous peak).
Nodes: there are 240 public listening and 115 normal nodes per dcred.eu. Version distribution: 57% on v1.2.0 (+12%), 25% on v1.1.2 (-13%), 14% on v1.1.0 (-1%). Note: the reported count of non-listening nodes has dropped significantly due to data reset at decred.eu. It will take some time before the crawler collects more data. On top of that, there is no way to exactly count non-listening nodes. To illustrate, an alternative data source, charts.dcr.farm showed 690 reachable nodes on Jul 1.
Extraordinary event: 247361 and 247362 were two nearly full blocks. Normally blocks are 10-20 KiB, but these blocks were 374 KiB (max is 384 KiB).

ASICs

Update from Obelisk: shipping is expected in first half of July and there is non-zero chance to meet hashrate target.
Another Chinese ASIC spotted on the web: Flying Fish D18 with 340 GH/s at 180 W costing 2,200 CNY (~340 USD). (asicok.comtranslated, also on asicminervalue)
dcrASIC team posted a farewell letter. Despite having an awesome 16 nm chip design, they decided to stop the project citing the saturated mining ecosystem and low profitability for their potential customers.

Integrations

bepool.org is a new mining pool spotted on dcred.eu.
Exchange integrations:
Two OTC trading desks are now shown on decred.org exchanges page.
BitPro payment gateway added Decred and posted on Reddit. Notably, it is fully functional without javascript or cookies and does not ask for name or email, among other features.
Guarda Wallet integrated Decred. Currently only in their web wallet, but more may come in future. Notable feature is "DCR purchase with a bank card". See more details in their post or ask their representative on Reddit. Important: do your best to understand the security model before using any wallet software.

Adoption

Merchants:
BlueYard Capital announced investment in Decred and the intent to be long term supporters and to actively participate in the network's governance. In an overview post they stressed core values of the project:
There are a few other remarkable characteristics that are a testament to the DNA of the team behind Decred: there was no sale of DCR to investors, no venture funding, and no payment to exchanges to be listed – underscoring that the Decred team and contributors are all about doing the right thing for long term (as manifested in their constitution for the project).
The most encouraging thing we can see is both the quality and quantity of high calibre developers flocking to the project, in addition to a vibrant community attaching their identity to the project.
The company will be hosting an event in Berlin, see Events below.
Arbitrade is now mining Decred.

Events

Attended:
Upcoming:

Media

stakey.club: a new website by @mm:
Hey guys! I'd like to share with you my latest adventure: Stakey Club, hosted at stakey.club, is a website dedicated to Decred. I posted a few articles in Brazilian Portuguese and in English. I also translated to Portuguese some posts from the Decred Blog. I hope you like it! (slack)
@morphymore translated Placeholder's Decred Investment Thesis and Richard Red's write-up on Politeia to Chinese, while @DZ translated Decred Roadmap 2018 to Italian and Russian, and A New Kind of DEX to Italian and Russian.
Second iteration of Chinese ratings released. Compared to the first issue, Decred dropped from 26 to 29 while Bitcoin fell from 13 to 17. We (the authors) restrain ourselves commenting on this one.
Videos:
Audio:
Featured articles:
Articles:

Community Discussions

Community stats: Twitter followers 40,209 (+1,091), Reddit subscribers 8,410 (+243), Slack users 5,830 (+172), GitHub 392 stars and 918 forks of dcrd repository.
An update on our communication systems:
Jake Yocom-Piatt did an AMA on CryptoTechnology, a forum for serious crypto tech discussion. Some topics covered were Decred attack cost and resistance, voting policies, smart contracts, SPV security, DAO and DPoS.
A new kind of DEX was the subject of an extensive discussion in #general, #random, #trading channels as well as Reddit. New channel #thedex was created and attracted more than 100 people.
A frequent and fair question is how the DEX would benefit Decred. @lukebp has put it well:
Projects like these help Decred attract talent. Typically, the people that are the best at what they do aren’t driven solely by money. They want to work on interesting projects that they believe in with other talented individuals. Launching a DEX that has no trading fees, no requirement to buy a 3rd party token (including Decred), and that cuts out all middlemen is a clear demonstration of the ethos that Decred was founded on. It helps us get our name out there and attract the type of people that believe in the same mission that we do. (slack)
Another concern that it will slow down other projects was addressed by @davecgh:
The intent is for an external team to take up the mantle and build it, so it won't have any bearing on the current c0 roadmap. The important thing to keep in mind is that the goal of Decred is to have a bunch of independent teams on working on different things. (slack)
A chat about Decred fork resistance started on Twitter and continued in #trading. Community members continue to discuss the finer points of Decred's hybrid system, bringing new users up to speed and answering their questions. The key takeaway from this chat is that the Decred chain is impossible to advance without votes, and to get around that the forker needs to change the protocol in a way that would make it clearly not Decred.
"Against community governance" article was discussed on Reddit and #governance.
"The Downside of Democracy (and What it Means for Blockchain Governance)" was another article arguing against on-chain governance, discussed here.
Reddit recap: mining rig shops discussion; how centralized is Politeia; controversial debate on photos of models that yielded useful discussion on our marketing approach; analysis of a drop in number of transactions; concerns regarding project bus factor, removing central authorities, advertising and full node count – received detailed responses; an argument by insette for maximizing aggregate tx fees; coordinating network upgrades; a new "Why Decred?" thread; a question about quantum resistance with a detailed answer and a recap of current status of quantum resistant algorithms.
Chats recap: Programmatic Proof-of-Work (ProgPoW) discussion; possible hashrate of Blake-256 miners is at least ~30% higher than SHA-256d; how Decred is not vulnerable to SPV leaf/node attack.

Markets

DCR opened the month at ~$93, reached monthly high of $110, gradually dropped to the low of $58 and closed at $67. In BTC terms it was 0.0125 -> 0.0150 -> 0.0098 -> 0.0105. The downturn coincided with a global decline across the whole crypto market.
In the middle of the month Decred was noticed to be #1 in onchainfx "% down from ATH" chart and on this chart by @CoinzTrader. Towards the end of the month it dropped to #3.

Relevant External

Obelisk announced Launchpad service. The idea is to work with coin developers to design a custom, ASIC-friendly PoW algorithm together with a first batch of ASICs and distribute them among the community.
Equihash-based ZenCash was hit by a double spend attack that led to a loss of $450,000 by the exchange which was targeted.
Almost one year after collecting funds, Tezos announced a surprise identification procedure to claim tokens (non-javascript version).
A hacker broke into Syscoin's GitHub account and implanted malware stealing passwords and private keys into Windows binaries. This is a painful reminder for everybody to verify binaries after download.
Circle announced new asset listing framework for Poloniex. Relevant to recent discussions of exchange listing bribery:
Please note: we will not accept any kind of payment to list an asset.
Bithumb got hacked with a $30 m loss.
Zcash organized Zcon0, an event in Canada that focused on privacy tech and governance. An interesting insight from Keynote Panel on governance: "There is no such thing as on-chain governance".
Microsoft acquired GitHub. There was some debate about whether it is a reason to look into alternative solutions like GitLab right now. It is always a good idea to have a local copy of Decred source code, just in case.
Status update from @sumiflow on correcting DCR supply on various sites:
To begin with, none of the below sites were showing the correct supply or market cap for Decred but we've made some progress. coingecko.com, coinlib.io, cryptocompare.com, livecoinwatch.com, worldcoinindex.com - corrected! cryptoindex.co, onchainfx.com - awaiting fix coinmarketcap.com - refused to fix because devs have coins too? (slack)

About This Issue

This is the third issue of Decred Journal after April and May.
Most information from third parties is relayed directly from source after a minimal sanity check. The authors of Decred Journal have no ability to verify all claims. Please beware of scams and do your own research.
The new public Matrix logs look promising and we hope to transition from Slack links to Matrix links. In the meantime, the way to read Slack links is explained in the previous issue.
As usual, any feedback is appreciated: please comment on Reddit, GitHub or #writers_room. Contributions are welcome too, anything from initial collection to final review to translations.
Credits (Slack names, alphabetical order): bee and Richard-Red. Special thanks to @Haon for bringing May 2018 issue to medium.
submitted by jet_user to decred [link] [comments]

Decred Journal – August 2018

Note: you can read this on GitHub (link), Medium (link) or old Reddit (link) to see all the links.

Development

dcrd: Version 1.3.0 RC1 (Release Candidate 1) is out! The main features of this release are significant performance improvements, including some that benefit SPV clients. Full release notes and downloads are on GitHub.
The default minimum transaction fee rate was reduced from 0.001 to 0.0001 DCkB. Do not try to send such small fee transactions just yet, until the majority of the network upgrades.
Release process was changed to use release branches and bump version on the master branch at the beginning of a release cycle. Discussed in this chat.
The codebase is ready for the new Go 1.11 version. Migration to vgo module system is complete and the 1.4.0 release will be built using modules. The list of versioned modules and a hierarchy diagram are available here.
The testnet was reset and bumped to version 3.
Comments are welcome for the proposal to implement smart fee estimation, which is important for Lightning Network.
@matheusd recorded a code review video for new Decred developers that explains how tickets are selected for voting.
dcrwallet: Version 1.3.0 RC1 features new SPV sync mode, new ticket buyer, new APIs for Decrediton and a host of bug fixes. On the dev side, dcrwallet also migrated to the new module system.
Decrediton: Version 1.3.0 RC1 adds the new SPV sync mode that syncs roughly 5x faster. The feature is off by default while it receives more testing from experienced users. Other notable changes include a design polish and experimental Politeia integration.
Politeia: Proposal editing is being developed and has a short demo. This will allow proposal owners to edit their proposal in response to community feedback before voting begins. The challenges associated with this feature relate to updating censorship tokens and maintaining a clear history of which version comments were made on. @fernandoabolafio produced this architecture diagram which may be of interest to developers.
@degeri joined to perform security testing of Politeia and found several issues.
dcrdata: mainnet explorer upgraded to v2.1 with several new features. For users: credit/debit tx filter on address page, showing miner fees on coinbase transaction page, estimate yearly ticket rewards on main page, cool new hamburger menu and keyboard navigation. For developers: new chain parameters page, experimental Insight API support, endpoints for coin supply and block rewards, testnet3 support. Lots of minor API changes and frontend tweaks, many bug fixes and robustness improvements.
The upcoming v3.0 entered beta and is deployed on beta.dcrdata.org. Check out the new charts page. Feedback and bug reports are appreciated. Finally, the development version v3.1.0-pre is on alpha.dcrdata.org.
Android: updated to be compatible with the latest SPV code and is syncing, several performance issues are worked on. Details were posted in chat. Alpha testing has started, to participate please join #dev and ask for the APK.
iOS: backend is mostly complete, as well as the front end. Support for devices with smaller screens was improved. What works now: creating and recovering wallets, listing of transactions, receiving DCR, displaying and scanning QR codes, browsing account information, SPV connection to peers, downloading headers. Some bugs need fixing before making testable builds.
Ticket splitting: v0.6.0 beta released with improved fee calculation and multiple bug fixes.
docs: introduced new Governance section that grouped some old articles as well as the new Politeia page.
@Richard-Red created a concept repository sandbox with policy documents, to illustrate the kind of policies that could be approved and amended by Politeia proposals.
decred.org: 8 contributors added and 4 removed, including 2 advisors (discussion here).
decredmarketcap.com is a brand new website that shows the most accurate DCR market data. Clean design, mobile friendly, no javascript required.
Dev activity stats for August: 239 active PRs, 219 commits, 25k added and 11k deleted lines spread across 8 repositories. Contributions came from 2-10 developers per repository. (chart)

Network

Hashrate: went from 54 to 76 PH/s, the low was 50 and the new all-time high is 100 PH/s. BeePool share rose to ~50% while F2Pool shrank to 30%, followed by coinmine.pl at 5% and Luxor at 3%.
Staking: 30-day average ticket price is 95.6 DCR (+3.0) as of Sep 3. During the month, ticket price fluctuated between a low of 92.2 and high of 100.5 DCR. Locked DCR represented between 3.8 and 3.9 million or 46.3-46.9% of the supply.
Nodes: there are 217 public listening and 281 normal nodes per dcred.eu. Version distribution: 2% at v1.4.0(pre) (dev builds), 5% on v1.3.0 (RC1), 62% on v1.2.0 (-5%), 22% on v1.1.2 (-2%), 6% on v1.1.0 (-1%). Almost 69% of nodes are v.1.2.0 and higher and support client filters. Data snapshot of Aug 31.

ASICs

Obelisk posted 3 email updates in August. DCR1 units are reportedly shipping with 1 TH/s hashrate and will be upgraded with firmware to 1.5 TH/s. Batch 1 customers will receive compensation for missed shipment dates, but only after Batch 5 ships. Batch 2-5 customers will be receiving the updated slim design.
Innosilicon announced the new D9+ DecredMaster: 2.8 TH/s at 1,230 W priced $1,499. Specified shipping date was Aug 10-15.
FFMiner DS19 claims 3.1 TH/s for Blake256R14 at 680 W and simultaneously 1.55 TH/s for Blake2B at 410 W, the price is $1,299. Shipping Aug 20-25.
Another newly noticed miner offer is this unit that does 46 TH/s at 2,150 W at the price of $4,720. It is shipping Nov 2018 and the stats look very close to Pangolin Whatsminer DCR (which has now a page on asicminervalue).

Integrations

www.d1pool.com joined the list of stakepools for a total of 16.
Australian CoinTree added DCR trading. The platform supports fiat, there are some limitations during the upgrade to a new system but also no fees in the "Early access mode". On a related note, CoinTree is working on a feature to pay household bills with cryptocurrencies it supports.
Three new OTC desks were added to exchanges page at decred.org.
Two mobile wallets integrated Decred:
Reminder: do your best to understand the security and privacy model before using any wallet software. Points to consider: who controls the seed, does the wallet talk to the nodes directly or via middlemen, is it open source or not?

Adoption

Merchants:

Marketing

Targeted advertising report for August was posted by @timhebel. Facebook appeal is pending, some Google and Twitter campaigns were paused and some updated. Read more here.
Contribution to the @decredproject Twitter account has evolved over the past few months. A #twitter_ops channel is being used on Matrix to collaboratively draft and execute project account tweets (including retweets). Anyone with an interest in contributing to the Twitter account can ask for an invitation to the channel and can start contributing content and ideas there for evaluation by the Twitter group. As a result, no minority or unilateral veto over tweets is possible. (from GitHub)

Events

Attended:
For those willing to help with the events:
BAB: Hey all, we are gearing up for conference season. I have a list of places we hope to attend but need to know who besides @joshuam and @Haon are willing to do public speaking, willing to work booths, or help out at them? You will need to be well versed on not just what is Decred, but the history of Decred etc... DM me if you are interested. (#event_planning)
The Decred project is looking for ambassadors. If you are looking for a fun cryptocurrency to get involved in send me a DM or come talk to me on Decred slack. (@marco_peereboom, longer version here)

Media

Decred Assembly episode 21 is available. @jy-p and lead dcrwallet developer @jrick discussed SPV from Satoshi's whitepaper, how it can be improved upon and what's coming in Decred.
Decred Assembly episodes 1-21 are available in audio only format here.
New instructional articles on stakey.club: Decrediton setup, Deleting the wallet, Installing Go, Installing dcrd, dcrd as a Linux service. Available in both English and Portuguese.
Decred scored #32 in the August issue of Chinese CCID ratings. The evaluation model was explained in this interview.
Satis Group rated Decred highly in their cryptoasset valuation research report (PDF). This was featured by several large media outlets, but some did not link to or omitted Decred entirely, citing low market cap.
Featured articles:
Articles:
Videos:

Community Discussions

Community stats:
Comm systems news:
After another debate about chat systems more people began testing and using Matrix, leading to some gardening on that platform:
Highlights:
Reddit: substantive discussion about Decred cons; ecosystem fund; a thread about voter engagement, Politeia UX and trolling; idea of a social media system for Decred by @michae2xl; how profitable is the Obelisk DCR1.
Chats: cross-chain trading via LN; plans for contractor management system, lower-level decision making and contractor privacy vs transparency for stakeholders; measuring dev activity; what if the network stalls, multiple implementations of Decred for more resilience, long term vision behind those extensive tests and accurate comments in the codebase; ideas for process for policy documents, hosting them in Pi and approving with ticket voting; about SPV wallet disk size, how compact filters work; odds of a wallet fetching a wrong block in SPV; new module system in Go; security of allowing Android app backups; why PoW algo change proposal must be specified in great detail; thoughts about NIPoPoWs and SPV; prerequisites for shipping SPV by default (continued); Decred vs Dash treasury and marketing expenses, spending other people's money; why Decred should not invade a country, DAO and nation states, entangling with nation state is poor resource allocation; how winning tickets are determined and attack vectors; Politeia proposal moderation, contractor clearance, the scale of proposals and decision delegation, initial Politeia vote to approve Politeia itself; chat systems, Matrix/Slack/Discord/RocketChat/Keybase (continued); overview of Korean exchanges; no breaking changes in vgo; why project fund burn rate must keep low; asymptotic behavior of Decred and other ccs, tail emission; count of full nodes and incentives to run them; Politeia proposal translations and multilingual environment.
An unusual event was the chat about double negatives and other oddities in languages in #trading.

Markets

DCR started the month at USD 56 / BTC 0.0073 and had a two week decline. On Aug 14 the whole market took a huge drop and briefly went below USD 200 billion. Bitcoin went below USD 6,000 and top 100 cryptos lost 5-30%. The lowest point coincided with Bitcoin dominance peak at 54.5%. On that day Decred dived -17% and reached the bottom of USD 32 / BTC 0.00537. Since then it went sideways in the USD 35-45 / BTC 0.0054-0.0064 range. Around Aug 24, Huobi showed DCR trading volume above USD 5M and this coincided with a minor recovery.
@ImacallyouJawdy posted some creative analysis based on ticket data.

Relevant External

StopAndDecrypt published an extensive article "ASIC Resistance is Nothing but a Blockchain Buzzword" that is much in line with Decred's stance on ASICs.
The ongoing debates about the possible Sia fork yet again demonstrate the importance of a robust dispute resolution mechanism. Also, we are lucky to have the treasury.
Mark B Lundeberg, who found a vulnerability in atomicswap earlier, published a concept of more private peer-to-peer atomic swaps. (missed in July issue)
Medium took a cautious stance on cryptocurrencies and triggered at least one project to migrate to Ghost (that same project previously migrated away from Slack).
Regulation: Vietnam bans mining equipment imports, China halts crypto events and tightens control of crypto chat groups.
Reddit was hacked by intercepting 2FA codes sent via SMS. The announcement explains the impact. Yet another data breach suggests to think twice before sharing any data with any company and shift to more secure authentication systems.
Intel and x86 dumpsterfire keeps burning brighter. Seek more secure hardware and operating systems for your coins.
Finally, unrelated to Decred but good for a laugh: yetanotherico.com.

About This Issue

This is the 5th issue of Decred Journal. It is mirrored on GitHub, Medium and Reddit. Past issues are available here.
Most information from third parties is relayed directly from source after a minimal sanity check. The authors of Decred Journal have no ability to verify all claims. Please beware of scams and do your own research.
Feedback is appreciated: please comment on Reddit, GitHub or #writers_room on Matrix or Slack.
Contributions are welcome too. Some areas are collecting content, pre-release review or translations to other languages. Check out @Richard-Red's guide how to contribute to Decred using GitHub without writing code.
Credits (Slack names, alphabetical order): bee, Haon, jazzah, Richard-Red and thedecreddigest.
submitted by jet_user to decred [link] [comments]

[Daily BAT Discussion] In Plain Sight - January 10, 2018

January 10, 2018
Hey BAT bunnies! Welcome to the Daily BAT Discussion!
Yesterday's Market Movements - Sort of Sideways Consolidation
Yesterday we saw another insane run-up in the middle of the day, hitting an ATH on Bittrex at 6777 sats ($0.96) while Binance retouched it for the 2nd time in two days. Afterwards, the BAT rocket cooled off when Ethereum began to take off. At the time of this post, we ended around where we started the day, around 5500 sats ($0.78). It's actually hard to fathom that I'm saying BAT had to fall back down to 80 cents haha. Even though we saw an insane run-up in price as well as a relatively quick descent, the community growth shows ever-increasing awareness and support.
We got another 300 subs for the 3rd day in a row! Also, the BAT token holders have been growing at a rate of 500 new addresses per day! This is absolutely huge growth compared to seeing less than 100 in a single day a few months ago!
(Recap) Binance Opens up Registration
If you are still looking to get your hands on some BAT through Binance (referral link), they have just reopened registration! If you've never bought from an exchange or would like some help, check out the tutorial below to walk you through purchasing some BAT!
(Recap) Uphold adds Debit/Credit Card Purchasing
If you are looking to get some BAT fast, Uphold has just added debit/credit card purchasing. Uphold is an easy way to acquire BAT straight from fiat. If you didn't know, Uphold is one of Brave's official partners! Register here.
Caution: Someone in the community discovered that Uphold does not work for New York citizens
(Recap) Getting the Daily Stickied
CryptoJennie has responded about getting the Dailies sticked. Currently they are working on settling some issues with the unofficial Facebook group, and once that is finished, these dailies should be getting some love and pinned to the top.
Tutorials
Here are some guides for new people getting into crypto, especially BAT. Invest responsibly!
Daily Discussion Rules
Remember, the permitted topics of discussion include, but are not limited to:
For now, dailies won't be stickied. So if you can, please upvote!
Disclaimer: All content on BAT Dailies are not affiliated with the official Brave or BAT team, and are solely run and provided by the BAT community unless otherwise stated.
submitted by dragespir to BATProject [link] [comments]

4 Sub-$10 Million Market Cap Coins Worth Keeping An Eye On

1. Spectrecoin ($XSPEC) – $8.6 Million

What is Spectrecoin?

Utilizing a “range of proven cryptographic techniques” to achieve anonymous, untraceable, and un-linkable transactions, Spectrecoin is a secure Proof-of-Stake cryptocurrency enabling rapid P2P transactions and network privacy. Specifically, Spectrecoin is pulling out all the stops in order to protect user identity through their integration of:
At its core, Spectre’s dual coin system sanctions four fundamental types of privacy and anonymity transactions, XSPEC > XSPEC, XSPEC > SPECTRE, SPECTRE > SPECTRE, and SPECTRE > XSPEC, providing a plethora of transaction options for every type of user.
And finally, if you’re looking for the TLDR (too long, didn’t read), Spectrecoin notes the best way to understand SPECTRE is to think of Bitcoin + Proof-of-Stake.v3 + anonymous transactions (similar to Monero) + Tor (for IP obfuscation).

Why You Should Keep an Eye On XSPEC

Unlike several other privacy coins which merely provide a Tor proxy—availing users to potential malicious exit nodes—Spectrecoin is fully integrated with Tor, a reliable and tested network providing one of the largest pools of IP addresses for confidentiality and untraceability.
Coupled with staking, set at a 5% minimum per year, Spectrecoin offers a unique proposition (the only one in blockchain) for users looking to earn rewards while remaining anonymous by staking anonymous coins while generating more, fresh anonymous ones.
Furthermore, for those looking for affirmation of Spectrecoin’s commitment to anonymity, not even the developers know each other’s real names—something that would have made walking away from a lacklustre ICO (which only raised 16 BTC at $600/700 per BTC) all too easy.
Spectre has emphasized organic growth without an excessive and aggressive marketing push, opting instead for a working product and timely improvements to meet the ever-changing privacy arms race. And, with their funding gap set around £19,000, users can take solace in knowing the project isn’t an outright cash grab asking for millions to further tenuous goodwill—like far too many projects in the cryptosphere.
At time of writing, XSPEC is listed on CoinMarketcap at US$0.41 or 5,970 Satoshis.
Finally, if you’re wondering how Spectrecoin stacks up to other privacy coins, such as Monero, PIVX, and Zcash, check out this comparison chart.

2. FundRequest ($FND) – $1 Million

What is FundRequest?

In an age where open source software is an integral component for institutional, government, and nonprofit function and growth, there unfortunately remains a hindering factor—a cohesive, transparent, and styled request and transaction flow.
Cue FundRequest, a decentralized marketplace for open source collaboration and catalyst for global open source sharing and circulation, empowering organizations, government, and other entities to:
Need to brush up on what exactly ‘open source’ means? The Open Source Initiative describes the concept of ‘open source’ as a tool which “enables a development method for software that harnesses the power of distributed peer review and transparency of process.”
For example, a requesting organization (referred to as the funder) will allot set funds—stored in a smart contract (i.e., escrow)—in order to tackle an open source issue, which is then picked up and solved by a developer (the solver). In order to eliminate malicious behavior, FundRequest requires solvers to “have skin in the game,” by staking proportional valued funds, all released and claimed once the issue is solved.
Simply put, FundRequest is the go-to facilitating and incentivization platform (similar to Airbnb and Uber) for funding, claiming, and rewarding open source commits and contributions, leading to an enriched and more collaborative open source ecosystem.

Why You Should Keep an Eye On FND

With an estimated US$60 billion-plus in savings per year for organizations and institutions, thanks to open-source software and technology adoption, FundRequest is set to act as the glue which connects all dispersed and integral parts and actors. Traditional software, prohibitive costs, and predatory vendor practices are proving not to be conducive towards maximal technological growth and development, as most people and organizations just simply can’t afford or maintain it.
Plus, with a clear push by both private and public sectors to leverage community-based software for development and distribution over the last decade, it’s expanding at rapid pace. In 2018, it’s approximated over 50% of European and North American companies utilize open source software for “crucial applications,” along with over 50% of American government organizations.
This is no small industry.
GitHub alone boasts over 24 million users (more than 8 times their user base five years ago), and it’s estimated that in the EU and United States combined, there’s over 160 million persons working as freelancers and independent contractors in what’s known as the “gig economy.” And that’s just the tip of the iceberg, with over 60% of online gig economy workers accounted for in Asia.
As of August 1st, FND’s price sits at right around US$0.03 or 472 Satoshis.
Finally, for open source projects and ERC-20 token projects looking to increase development capacity, consider checking out FundRequest for potential partnerships. Already in their short tenure, FundRequest has partnered with:

3. COSS ($COSS) – $7.7 Million

What is COSS?

Redefining convenience, simplicity, and compatibility, and short for the “Crypto One-Stop Solution’ exchange and platform, COSS is the native token and liquidity attraction tool of the Singapore-based exchange, boasting some of the most popular altcoins on the market while enabling users to receive weekly payouts in “dust” for all traded tokens.
Specifically, COSS is looking to provide more than just a simple, fast, and secure cryptocurrency trading exchange—they’re building a borderless, digital economical system to bring cryptocurrencies to the masses via:
Ultimately, COSS is looking to shake up the cryptocurrency exchange ecosystem through improved user experience, heightened product and feature functions, and a comprehensive foundation for employers, startups, companies, and traders to build towards a more accessible and mainstream cooperative blockchain community.

Why You Should Keep an Eye on COSS

With the rapid and gargantuan successes enjoyed by both Kucoin and Binance in 2018, crypto exchanges employing user-friendly token incentivization models are becoming a go-to for users looking to generate passive income while diversifying their crypto portfolio.
However, unlike other cryptocurrency exchanges which have lowered their daily fee splits to nominal amounts, COSS has stayed true towards user rewards, keeping their daily percentage at 50%—paying out the respective dividends via a decentralized autonomous organization, ultimately guaranteeing an immutable percentage.
In order to stay competitive in the present-day blockchain ecosystem, COSS’s whitepaper notes a minimum of 3-5 new features implemented per quarter. In the past several months, below are just several of their most notable achievements:
And, if you’re looking to know what COSS’s endgame here is, their goal is to shift completely towards a decentralized autonomous organization (DAO) in the future, where governance and decision making is outlined in code and run by a peer-to-peer network.
Currently, COSS’s price is listed at US$0.06 or 935 Satoshis on Coinmarketcap.
Finally, if you’re curious about COSS’s fee sharing, check out the COSS fee share calculator, which provides an accurate picture of your monthly exchange fee earnings relative to the amount of COSS owned. One Reddit user recently posted, and provided a screenshot, showing the COSS annual dividends to be at nearly 10% per year.

4. Lamden ($TAU) – $6.9 Million

What is Lamden?

Named after the Sherpa language word meaning “to guide,” Lamden is staying true to its name by easing the creation and deployment of dapps and custom blockchains.
At its core, Lamden is providing a suite of developer tools mimicking “modern development processes in such tech stacks as Node.js or Python.” Simply put, Lamden is supplying the building blocks for experienced and amateur blockchain developers alike, enabling organizations and enterprise to skirt the energy and time costs of hiring and training expensive blockchain developers—ultimately speeding up efficiency and reducing overhead costs.
Lamden is broken up into three fundamental sections, which all are in furtherance of project depth and the deployment of hyperfast blockchains for developers to not only experiment with, but test and deploy across other blockchain systems and platforms:
Furthermore, Lamden supports the Ethereum network and Bitcoin-based blockchains at present, and boasts zero transaction fees and free chain-to-chain payments in exchange for chain allocation a specific amount of bandwidth for confirming payment channel transactions—meaning that its users are able to transact for free as a result of corporate entities bearing the network load and processing.

Why You Should Keep an Eye On TAU

Having released their ‘Cilantro’ testnet alpha in February 2018, Lamden has since hit the ground running, rolling out their first version of Clove soon after and tackling the necessary tune-ups and improvements in preparation of their mainnet launch in Q4 2018. Lamden’s mainnet is set to utilize a unique combination of Delegated Proof-of-Stake (DPoS) and the BFT Protocol, and will scale to process nearly 10,000 transactions per second.
Moreover, in April 2018, Lamden announced the creation of LamDEX, their own decentralized cryptocurrency exchange and platform, where users will be able to stake their TAU—the native token of the Lamden platform—to act as a market maker, allowing for a cohesive back and forth across the TAU pair at prices faintly above and below market cost, ultimately generating rewards.
With a rather daunting and tedious task ahead for anyone looking to utilize and incorporate existing smart contracts—which involves the manual searching for such on GitHub (a general repository website)—Lamden is truly adding value to blockchain and application development through their smart contract repository. Unlike GitHub, Lamden supports dependencies, versioning, and security, all essential elements for a quality package manager.
Doing so adds not only convenience, but practicality to smart contract packages and implementation, and stands to save enterprise and organizations both exorbitant developer costs and time.
If you’d like to learn more about Lamden’s developer tool suite, check out this complete overview from their blog.
At the time of writing, Lamden’s price according to Coinmarketcap is US$0.04 or 699 Satoshis.
To get a better picture of Lamden and their blockchain development tools ecosystem, check out this explanatory YouTube video from their channel.
Final Thoughts
Risk is inevitable when investing in crypto and blockchain projects. However, as long as you are cognizantly defining parameters for absorbing such risk, then diversifying your portfolio with smaller capped projects can be an effective way to realize value.
Whether you’re looking for a user-friendly exchange to purchase crypto directly with fiat from (and earn dividends for loyalty) or wanting to execute anonymous and secure transactions with a P2P coin, the aforementioned projects are all bringing value to the crypto sphere through their overhaul of ineffective traditional mechanisms and institutions.
Make sure to stay calm and collected during this bear market, associate yourself with quality projects that you think are bringing actual value to severely flawed industries, and remember, having a little gamble in you never hurts (as long as it’s properly accounted for).
Source: https://www.investinblockchain.com/sub-10-million-coins/
B0x: Gustafio
submitted by Marlie3 to altcoinforum [link] [comments]

Subreddit Stats: Bitcoin top posts from 2018-04-16 to 2018-05-16 07:24 PDT

Period: 29.86 days
Submissions Comments
Total 1000 60667
Rate (per day) 33.49 2014.59
Unique Redditors 728 13668
Combined Score 403062 287813

Top Submitters' Top Submissions

  1. 23089 points, 2 submissions: jrs0080
    1. Whoever put this up deserves a medal (22960 points, 320 comments)
    2. It’s Official... 13th December is The Best Day to Own Bitcoin!!!! (129 points, 30 comments)
  2. 22608 points, 10 submissions: bitchari
    1. Value is always in the eyes of the beholder (10970 points, 554 comments)
    2. We did it!! BTC ✌️ (4328 points, 346 comments)
    3. Uncomfortable truths!! (3222 points, 471 comments)
    4. "rat poison" returns!! (1547 points, 239 comments)
    5. Really!! (806 points, 127 comments)
    6. A picture is worth a thousand words! Found this on Twitter (805 points, 88 comments)
    7. German Bank Allows Users To Transfer Loans Anywhere In The World Using Bitcoin "see no bank, hear no bank, speak no bank" is their motto (392 points, 30 comments)
    8. “We need to take a moment and respect this generation’s interest in this new instrument (bitcoin),” CFTC Chairman. https://www.ccn.com/we-need-to-respect-this-generations-interest-in-bitcoin-cftc-chairman/ (328 points, 28 comments)
    9. You may define what Bitcoin is to yourself. You may not define what Bitcoin is to others without their consent. https://t.co/6vVRhoVTZm (113 points, 18 comments)
    10. Bill Gates doesn't like bitcoin. Really?!! He did not believe in the internet either! (97 points, 47 comments)
  3. 14875 points, 2 submissions: ltc-
    1. What a time to be alive! (14748 points, 470 comments)
    2. I modified a thing. (127 points, 22 comments)
  4. 10913 points, 1 submission: InteractiveLedger
    1. This is NOT OK. Upvote for visibility (10913 points, 1557 comments)
  5. 10876 points, 1 submission: PineappleFund
    1. Farewell from the Pineapple Fund (10876 points, 611 comments)
  6. 10387 points, 1 submission: EMC2_trooper
    1. I see it every day. (10387 points, 296 comments)
  7. 9081 points, 1 submission: normcrypto
    1. You knew this was coming... one of my faves last year (9081 points, 128 comments)
  8. 8749 points, 4 submissions: StoneHammers
    1. exceedingly efficient (7945 points, 207 comments)
    2. As I was saying (423 points, 20 comments)
    3. Too Damn High (194 points, 56 comments)
    4. Dear Bitcoin ATM makers please disclose your fees in clear understandable language prominently on the face of your machines. (187 points, 53 comments)
  9. 7663 points, 1 submission: joe4c
    1. Sir this seat is reserved for people with disabilities... (7663 points, 526 comments)
  10. 6865 points, 1 submission: Dark_Dantex
    1. It’s over 9000!!!!!! (6865 points, 429 comments)
  11. 6741 points, 1 submission: Weaselbrott
    1. Everyone on Bitcoin right now waiting to press "submit" on their well-crafted 10K memes (6741 points, 134 comments)
  12. 6553 points, 1 submission: chickenmalaitikka
    1. Rekt (6553 points, 85 comments)
  13. 5352 points, 1 submission: LouisOfTokyo
    1. I took a trip with some friends to a sleepy rural town in Japan, hours outside of Tokyo. We entered a cafe and were surprised to see that they accepted bitcoin. Here is my friend buying a chocolate cake. (5352 points, 303 comments)
  14. 5340 points, 3 submissions: Pascalboyart
    1. Thanks a lot for your bitcoin donations on my street art piece in Paris, already 130$ received 🙏🙏🙏 (3909 points, 178 comments)
    2. Street art piece in Paris with a QR code for bitcoin donations (728 points, 63 comments)
    3. We did it ! Thanks to all the redditors, it came most from you guys 👏🙏🙏🙏 (703 points, 71 comments)
  15. 5118 points, 2 submissions: TipToeTiger
    1. Crypto Rider - A free game I made about racing on Bitcoin and other crypto's historical price graphs! (more info in comments) (5052 points, 309 comments)
    2. Thank You message to bitcoin from Crypto Rider team! (Message in comments) (66 points, 12 comments)
  16. 5021 points, 1 submission: UniqueUsername642
    1. This is Cryptocurrency (5021 points, 372 comments)
  17. 4820 points, 2 submissions: tinaclark90
    1. I've made some free Bitcoin Icons (4731 points, 246 comments)
    2. Very Soon in Vegas (89 points, 15 comments)
  18. 4558 points, 2 submissions: boobooyoudo
    1. Amazon filed a patent to de-anonymize Bitcoin transactions and sell the data to law enforcement (4501 points, 711 comments)
    2. Near Field Technology could help bring lightning Bitcoin payments to retail. (57 points, 7 comments)
  19. 4222 points, 1 submission: sparty_postgrad
    1. The answer on Jeopardy today! (4222 points, 174 comments)
  20. 4209 points, 2 submissions: installeris
    1. 17000000 Bitcoins Have Been Mined! 4 millions to go! Happy anniversary day! (3735 points, 271 comments)
    2. The Irony (474 points, 37 comments)
  21. 3850 points, 1 submission: SingularityNerd
    1. Hilarious satire protest outside Consensus, the website says Genesis Mining put it on. #bankersagainstbitcoin (3850 points, 183 comments)
  22. 3673 points, 1 submission: sebastianstan21
    1. Current scenario (3673 points, 130 comments)
  23. 3632 points, 1 submission: awice
    1. WOW, this just happened on Jeopardy! last night. (3632 points, 363 comments)
  24. 3630 points, 1 submission: -All-Day-
    1. Ayy lmao (3630 points, 60 comments)
  25. 3617 points, 1 submission: JJKirsch
    1. Fake or Fork (3617 points, 354 comments)
  26. 3435 points, 2 submissions: tedand
    1. CoinMarketCap should remove Bitcoin dot com website from Bitcoin's page (3135 points, 200 comments)
    2. Bitcoin.com is first result in Google for "buy Bitcoin", selling "Bitcoin Cash" instead (300 points, 168 comments)
  27. 3429 points, 1 submission: universaleric
    1. Sh..should we get the "it's over 9000" memes ready? (3429 points, 204 comments)
  28. 3404 points, 1 submission: eragmus
    1. Erik Voorhees: “Roger - please stop referencing me to back up your opinion that Bitcoin Cash is Bitcoin. It isn't. Bitcoin is the chain originating from the genesis block with the highest accumulated proof of work. The Bitcoin Cash fork failed to gain majority, thus it is not Bitcoin.” (3404 points, 402 comments)
  29. 3354 points, 7 submissions: ayanamirs
    1. Satoshi Nakamoto about bitcoin.com (2332 points, 327 comments)
    2. Roger Ver is a well-known scammer. (451 points, 129 comments)
    3. Coinbase has become an unreliable and even dangerous service, subject to arbitrary, non-transparent actions as it merged with the US banking sector and started to provide information on its customers to the US government. It has become everything that Bitcoin was designed to stop - @Wikileaks (313 points, 145 comments)
    4. Electrum 3.1.3 release! (96 points, 24 comments)
    5. I'm so glad bitcoin don't have a central man on the top. (71 points, 23 comments)
    6. Fees are low, use this opportunity to Consolidate your small inputs! (58 points, 7 comments)
    7. The segwit adoption doesn't increase anymore. We need to do something. (33 points, 33 comments)
  30. 2819 points, 4 submissions: Mikeross14
    1. Cracks me up everytime (2161 points, 70 comments)
    2. Baby Saver offers to buy this sub (270 points, 270 comments)
    3. Marvel referencing cryptocurrency in one of its latest comics! (261 points, 21 comments)
    4. You want to help Bitcoin but can't code? Do a simple thing then, call out all the scammers and call out everyone who supports these scammers. Make Crypto free from these scums. Simple. (127 points, 37 comments)
  31. 2795 points, 4 submissions: Fly115
    1. Bitcoin.com has fixed it's webpage after lawsuit (1642 points, 572 comments)
    2. Microsoft + Bitcoin Lightning Network. Decentralized Identity proof of concept to be shown off at Consensus 2018. Seems big (721 points, 104 comments)
    3. A major announcement at #consensus2018 that did not seem to get a lot of airtime @LedgerHQ announcing an institutional custody solution in partnership with @Nomura and @GABIjersey. Addresses a major issue for institutional investors (242 points, 16 comments)
    4. Segwit Adoption - Steady growth to 35% (190 points, 70 comments)
  32. 2590 points, 1 submission: dustincrypto
    1. Bitcoin going mainstream in Las Vegas (2590 points, 109 comments)
  33. 2567 points, 3 submissions: edlund10
    1. Nick Szabo retweeted: "⚠️ If you are new to #bitcoin then please be aware that bitcoin .com is a fraudulent website. ⚠️ This website is run by Roger Ver who is a known serial scammer. ⚠️ The current main scam is the promotion of #bcash which is a fake version of bitcoin." (1906 points, 302 comments)
    2. Exactly 5 years ago Wired wrote "The world’s most popular digital currency really is nothing more than an abstraction. So we’re destroying the private key used by our Bitcon wallet." The loss is currently worth $124,453.58 (568 points, 134 comments)
    3. Warren Buffet vs. Bitcoin, 5 years chart, logarithmic scale (93 points, 52 comments)
  34. 2556 points, 1 submission: SchnitzelBoss
    1. Coinmarket cap removed Bitcoin.com from Bitcoin's website list. (2556 points, 159 comments)
  35. 2549 points, 1 submission: bajanboost
    1. CEO of Binance actually gives a f***. This is the exact moment he was introduced to the Bermuda Shorts by the Bermuda Development Agency; A formal dress code in the country (2549 points, 125 comments)
  36. 2518 points, 2 submissions: Bitcoin_21
    1. WikiPedia's Bitcoin page removed the Bitcoin dot com explorer, because it misleads its users. (2083 points, 153 comments)
    2. Please report the bitcoin ,com wallet to the iOS app store for fraud. (435 points, 122 comments)
  37. 2403 points, 1 submission: TomasEddison
    1. Guy on CNBC says $100USD bill is used for far more illicit activity than bitcoin. (2403 points, 183 comments)
  38. 2316 points, 7 submissions: Suberg
    1. 600+ Bitcoin Users Seek Lawsuit Against Bitcoin.com & CEO Roger Ver for Fraud (1094 points, 298 comments)
    2. Bitcoin Lightning Network Matures With Record 2000 Nodes, $150K Capacity, 7000 active channels (500 points, 172 comments)
    3. Bitcoin.com Fraud Lawsuit Group Gaining Steam With Over 1000 Members (322 points, 184 comments)
    4. Tom Lee: Bitcoin Price Increase Coming After Consensus Conference (155 points, 46 comments)
    5. Russia's 'CIA' Memo Admits Telegram Was Blocked Because Crypto Is 'Uncontrollable' (151 points, 13 comments)
    6. Bitcoin Price Historically Surges With Consensus Conference, Data Shows (47 points, 26 comments)
    7. IMF's Lagarde: Bitcoin 'Could Have a Significant Impact on How We Save' (47 points, 11 comments)
  39. 2274 points, 9 submissions: TheGreatMuffin
    1. The CEO of Binance, a company with $200M yearly revenue, at a press conference (810 points, 103 comments)
    2. Goldman Sachs to Open a Bitcoin Trading Operation - NYTimes (498 points, 54 comments)
    3. Kraken's response to the NYAG enquiry (413 points, 117 comments)
    4. Jameson Lopp: "Today I've learned that a lot of data sources are incorrectly reporting the total bitcoin supply. We haven't actually hit 17M BTC yet; you can follow along in realtime at [link]" (141 points, 23 comments)
    5. Bitcoin was the 9th most viewed Wikipedia article in 2017, coming in just behind the entry for the United States. (h/t @lopp) (120 points, 18 comments)
    6. Samourai and goTenna Enable Bitcoin Transactions Without Internet Access (100 points, 16 comments)
    7. A German online bank uses Bitcoins to transfer loans (93 points, 35 comments)
    8. Huawei Is About to Give Chinese Users Easier Access to Bitcoin (62 points, 14 comments)
    9. Bitcoin Threat Model - extensive security review of possible threats to bitcoin as cryptocurrency (by JW Weatherman) (37 points, 11 comments)
  40. 2225 points, 1 submission: awesomedan77
    1. WARNING: HitBTC stole 5Btc deposit, even after I provided everything they asked for 2+ months! (2225 points, 486 comments)
  41. 2170 points, 1 submission: ronnnumber
    1. 45% of investors... (2170 points, 227 comments)
  42. 2041 points, 1 submission: YnotHaTony
    1. Truth about Bitcoin mining (2041 points, 136 comments)
  43. 2017 points, 9 submissions: Miladran
    1. Nasdaq is open to becoming cryptocurrency exchange, CEO says (966 points, 104 comments)
    2. BREAKING: Coinbase Just Bought One of Bitcoin's Biggest Startups (278 points, 103 comments)
    3. Bitcoin buy orders are >90% of the market for the first time since March 2017 (176 points, 28 comments)
    4. Telegram CEO Is Using Bitcoin to Help Bypass Russia's App Ban (173 points, 11 comments)
    5. Sell gold, buy bitcoin? The ultimate global safe haven debate has begun (128 points, 56 comments)
    6. Lambos are coming (117 points, 53 comments)
    7. Bitcoin gets boost from IMF head (71 points, 7 comments)
    8. Is PayPal driving people towards Bitcoin? (60 points, 83 comments)
    9. NASDAQ-Powered Cryptocurrency Exchange Platform to Launch in June (48 points, 9 comments)
  44. 1997 points, 1 submission: trainrekt23
    1. Found this today on the campus of my uni (1997 points, 225 comments)
  45. 1991 points, 1 submission: kynek99
    1. Here is the bitcoin.com owner who created Bitcoin Cash to scam people and show real Bitcoiners a middle finger. (1991 points, 408 comments)
  46. 1847 points, 1 submission: sha256art
    1. Fasten your seat belts (1847 points, 107 comments)
  47. 1822 points, 1 submission: 127fascination
    1. Australia Bans Cash For All Purchases Over $10,000 Starting July Of 2019 (1822 points, 531 comments)
  48. 1788 points, 5 submissions: coinmoon_com
    1. ‘Bitcoin’ was the 9th most read article on Wikipedia in 2017. Lets make it number 1 this year. Spread the word! (632 points, 35 comments)
    2. Bitcoin has worked non stop for 9 years. Without any days off, scheduled maintenance or severe issues. Let that sink in for a minute. (599 points, 226 comments)
    3. FORBES: Gold used to be money, and it was great money for its times. But Bitcoin's now the new flight capital. (286 points, 37 comments)
    4. 15 Claims Against Lightning, Answered (164 points, 12 comments)
    5. Bitcoin could replace cash in 10 years - Business Insider (107 points, 59 comments)
  49. 1694 points, 1 submission: BitMarKas
    1. New Ledger features! (1694 points, 42 comments)
  50. 1635 points, 6 submissions: _smudger_
    1. Today the 17th Million bitcoin will be mined (1070 points, 130 comments)
    2. Bitcoin to hit $50,000 by year-end, says BitMex CEO (158 points, 92 comments)
    3. Lightning + NFC? The New Plan to Bring Bitcoin to Retail (152 points, 45 comments)
    4. Vaultoro Becomes The First Exchange To Implement Bitcoin Lightning Network Payments (116 points, 6 comments)
    5. How to build your own portable plug-in Lightning node! (95 points, 5 comments)
    6. Bitcoin’s Recent Institutional Demand Is Unprecedented, Says Futures Market CEO (44 points, 6 comments)
  51. 1581 points, 1 submission: CoolStoryBroLol
    1. Bitcoin accepted at my dentist's office (1581 points, 210 comments)
  52. 1524 points, 1 submission: paintedfrog
    1. Found a helpful infographic. Could be handy to respond with this when people forget what Bitcoin is called... (1524 points, 294 comments)
  53. 1504 points, 1 submission: NikolaosKost
    1. Lawsuit from over 600 Bitcoin Users against Bitcoin.com and CEO Roger Ver (1504 points, 338 comments)
  54. 1497 points, 1 submission: 3hrdrive
    1. In Australia there is currently an investigation into banks and their practices, and the results are frightening (1497 points, 124 comments)
  55. 1423 points, 4 submissions: chek2fire
    1. Everyone must report this Bitcoin mobile wallet asap.Is a fraud (554 points, 174 comments)
    2. Roger Ver and Bitcoin.com do a social attacks to Bitcoin (506 points, 313 comments)
    3. Blockchain.info. 8 months and still no segwit support. They are more lazy than sub-saharan public sector (288 points, 58 comments)
    4. They said: "Segwit is not a scaling solution".... (75 points, 59 comments)
  56. 1420 points, 10 submissions: DesignerAccount
    1. Witness the future: Paying for coffee with LN in real life - Brisbane Airport (377 points, 144 comments)
    2. Bitcoin transaction fees in sat/b have not been so low since 2011!!! (173 points, 65 comments)
    3. PSA: Stop spelling the Bitcoin fraudulent site correctly - It only helps them as search engines pick it up. Use: bitcoin,com | bitcoin .com | bitcoin (.) com | bitcoindotcom | ... (153 points, 52 comments)
    4. "The bitlicense is a creature so foul, so cruel that not even Kraken possesses the courage or strength to face its nasty, big, pointy teeth." --- Kraken CEO: Exchange Won't Answer New York AG's Inquiry (141 points, 11 comments)
    5. Ready for work. (140 points, 69 comments)
    6. World Debt Hits Record $164 Trillion <-- That's WHY bitcoin. (133 points, 121 comments)
    7. Goldman Hires Head Cryptocurrency Trader (99 points, 4 comments)
    8. Chilean Anti-Monopoly Court Orders Banks To Re-Open Crypto Exchange’s Accounts (71 points, 3 comments)
    9. Hilarious: Lighting TESTNET app renamed Bitcoin Cash TESTNET!! (68 points, 23 comments)
    10. UNICEF Is Mining Crypto to Raise Funds for Children (65 points, 6 comments)
  57. 1381 points, 1 submission: girlpearl
    1. At the Gramatik show last night in Boston (1381 points, 63 comments)
  58. 1358 points, 3 submissions: zappadoing
    1. someone put a BTC-symbol on to the swiss federal bank! (1212 points, 84 comments)
    2. Bitcoin boosted as IMF boss Christine Lagarde praises cryptocurrency and suggests it could transform the way people save and invest (101 points, 8 comments)
    3. The Zurich bakery where you can't pay with cash (but bitcoins are fine) (45 points, 9 comments)
  59. 1337 points, 8 submissions: frankreddit5
    1. My daughter just informed me that someone told her "#Bitcoin is a worthless scheme" & that the US dollar has, quote, "one 'brick' of gold in a vault for every dollar there is."..There's so many things wrong with both of these statements that all I can do is sit here and facepalm (582 points, 184 comments)
    2. Here's my Bitcoin Starry Night art on Canvas! (250 points, 26 comments)
    3. I think it turned out sick! (whitepaper on metal) (122 points, 22 comments)
    4. It's funny to me when people say that #Bitcoin is a ponzi scheme or a bubble. The real ponzi scheme is the money system created by the Federal Reserve. And that's the real bubble, too. It's time for monetary reform; it's time for people to take back what is theirs. #BuyBitcoin (118 points, 39 comments)
    5. Argentina raises interest rates to 40% (80 points, 52 comments)
    6. my Satoshi Whitepaper art on 3/4" thick birch wood, treated with a high-gloss coating. (73 points, 16 comments)
    7. my Bitcoin Phoenix artwork (on metal) (70 points, 12 comments)
    8. my Bitcoin Astronaut art presented on a metal panel. It looks almost like an LCD TV in person! Image in comments. (42 points, 9 comments)
  60. 1200 points, 4 submissions: hodlerenfin
    1. Starting tomorrow Monday April 23, 2018 I will ask everywhere I spend my fiat, if they take Bitcoin even if I know they don’t. (609 points, 234 comments)
    2. Sad day today will be the last day we’ll see bitcoin below 9k.🙃 (275 points, 170 comments)
    3. Charlie Shrem on Twitter (162 points, 56 comments)
    4. I think at least everyday, wherever we spend fiat we should ask if they take Bitcoin. Even if we know they don’t. (154 points, 60 comments)
  61. 1196 points, 5 submissions: LegendsRoom
    1. Bitcoin dethroning Gold as a store of value. (349 points, 116 comments)
    2. Remember! with Banks, "only deposit what you can afford to lose!" (287 points, 121 comments)
    3. Remember! with Banks, "only deposit what you can afford to lose!" (287 points, 130 comments)
    4. Banking panic and chaos in UK, as customers locked out of accounts for 5 days running.. (155 points, 44 comments)
    5. UK Bank crippled, as customers panic, accounts emptied. (118 points, 41 comments)

Top Commenters

  1. TheBoyChris (2416 points, 4 comments)
  2. HODLTID (1954 points, 6 comments)
  3. Marcion_Sinope (1679 points, 303 comments)
  4. CONTROLurKEYS (1626 points, 204 comments)
  5. SuperGoxxer (1542 points, 284 comments)
  6. gonzobon (1428 points, 41 comments)
  7. technicallycorrect2 (1322 points, 29 comments)
  8. gbitg (1314 points, 4 comments)
  9. Bipolar_Chihuahua (1279 points, 3 comments)
  10. conv3rsion (1275 points, 1 comment)
  11. GolferRama (1167 points, 164 comments)
  12. HeyZeusChrist (1098 points, 51 comments)
  13. BCashBCashBTrash (1094 points, 381 comments)
  14. WhyDontYouTryIt (1019 points, 401 comments)
  15. jagan1355 (1016 points, 7 comments)
  16. HelloImRich (973 points, 50 comments)
  17. TheGreatMuffin (955 points, 141 comments)
  18. LegendsRoom (906 points, 59 comments)
  19. Kalin101 (859 points, 59 comments)
  20. Hanspanzer (845 points, 317 comments)
  21. TipToeTiger (797 points, 57 comments)
  22. themonkier (782 points, 16 comments)
  23. ducksauce88 (779 points, 179 comments)
  24. EMC2_trooper (762 points, 23 comments)
  25. Cryptolution (756 points, 223 comments)
  26. Timeforadrinkorthree (751 points, 3 comments)
  27. tranceology3 (750 points, 132 comments)
  28. biologischeavocado (741 points, 52 comments)
  29. MuD_D (740 points, 1 comment)
  30. BitcoinAlways (732 points, 286 comments)
  31. Explodicle (716 points, 246 comments)
  32. fenstabeemie (715 points, 1 comment)
  33. harreh (709 points, 1 comment)
  34. BashCo (669 points, 81 comments)
  35. zomgitsduke (654 points, 92 comments)
  36. bluethunder1985 (643 points, 124 comments)
  37. dontshillmexrp (643 points, 3 comments)
  38. jakesonwu (641 points, 90 comments)
  39. bitsteiner (639 points, 148 comments)
  40. eintnohick (627 points, 4 comments)
  41. devonthed00d (624 points, 8 comments)
  42. bitmaincash (623 points, 114 comments)
  43. fomotheclown (623 points, 114 comments)
  44. Black_RL (620 points, 15 comments)
  45. castorfromtheva (619 points, 24 comments)
  46. hsjoberg (612 points, 18 comments)
  47. pepe_le_shoe (602 points, 196 comments)
  48. a33b (602 points, 1 comment)
  49. inchhigh314 (597 points, 28 comments)
  50. Bitcoin_21 (577 points, 100 comments)
  51. Cykablast3r (571 points, 10 comments)
  52. bitusher (567 points, 87 comments)
  53. mustbemoney (564 points, 63 comments)
  54. typtyphus (562 points, 105 comments)
  55. gta3uzi (556 points, 145 comments)
  56. StopAndDecrypt (544 points, 80 comments)
  57. bossman-CT (542 points, 1 comment)
  58. IceColdInferno (534 points, 1 comment)
  59. outofofficeagain (532 points, 85 comments)
  60. fruitlessbanana (531 points, 9 comments)
  61. harrapino (526 points, 1 comment)
  62. suninabox (522 points, 159 comments)
  63. NimbleBodhi (511 points, 27 comments)
  64. pilotavery (508 points, 172 comments)
  65. Let_It_Steep (508 points, 5 comments)
  66. DeucesCracked (504 points, 71 comments)
  67. SpoekplumpeN (502 points, 142 comments)
  68. MrRGnome (498 points, 68 comments)
  69. Kanye_B_redpillin (497 points, 9 comments)
  70. robinwindy (495 points, 259 comments)
  71. absurdparadox (485 points, 8 comments)
  72. Iruwen (469 points, 57 comments)
  73. Bitcoin_Acolyte (459 points, 32 comments)
  74. ToddVonToddson (458 points, 1 comment)
  75. crptdv (450 points, 10 comments)
  76. djLyfeAlert (447 points, 83 comments)
  77. BucketSnail (443 points, 1 comment)
  78. BenTG (435 points, 5 comments)
  79. Mikeross14 (431 points, 39 comments)
  80. Utoko (429 points, 112 comments)
  81. LouisOfTokyo (428 points, 13 comments)
  82. pwuille (418 points, 17 comments)
  83. DartmouthBG (416 points, 26 comments)
  84. Natanael_L (411 points, 23 comments)
  85. flipsfordayz (410 points, 11 comments)
  86. raumi75 (408 points, 25 comments)
  87. boxhit (402 points, 27 comments)
  88. bluepuma90 (400 points, 3 comments)
  89. StoneHammers (391 points, 35 comments)
  90. AussieBitcoiner (390 points, 28 comments)
  91. TheRedStoner (385 points, 36 comments)
  92. 127fascination (384 points, 5 comments)
  93. PineappleFund (383 points, 4 comments)
  94. The-Physicist (382 points, 153 comments)
  95. BcashLoL (382 points, 137 comments)
  96. ketefocko (379 points, 1 comment)
  97. ThisIsABeginning (376 points, 22 comments)
  98. randiwulf (375 points, 6 comments)
  99. SpaceDuckTech (374 points, 66 comments)
  100. cdecker (373 points, 39 comments)

Top Submissions

  1. Whoever put this up deserves a medal by jrs0080 (22960 points, 320 comments)
  2. What a time to be alive! by ltc- (14748 points, 470 comments)
  3. Value is always in the eyes of the beholder by bitchari (10970 points, 554 comments)
  4. This is NOT OK. Upvote for visibility by InteractiveLedger (10913 points, 1557 comments)
  5. Farewell from the Pineapple Fund by PineappleFund (10876 points, 611 comments)
  6. I see it every day. by EMC2_trooper (10387 points, 296 comments)
  7. You knew this was coming... one of my faves last year by normcrypto (9081 points, 128 comments)
  8. exceedingly efficient by StoneHammers (7945 points, 207 comments)
  9. Sir this seat is reserved for people with disabilities... by joe4c (7663 points, 526 comments)
  10. It’s over 9000!!!!!! by Dark_Dantex (6865 points, 429 comments)

Top Comments

  1. 2313 points: TheBoyChris's comment in This is NOT OK. Upvote for visibility
  2. 1951 points: HODLTID's comment in Whoever put this up deserves a medal
  3. 1309 points: gbitg's comment in Value is always in the eyes of the beholder
  4. 1275 points: conv3rsion's comment in Farewell from the Pineapple Fund
  5. 1220 points: technicallycorrect2's comment in Amazon filed a patent to de-anonymize Bitcoin transactions and sell the data to law enforcement
  6. 1219 points: Bipolar_Chihuahua's comment in This is NOT OK. Upvote for visibility
  7. 1014 points: gonzobon's comment in exceedingly efficient
  8. 987 points: jagan1355's comment in This is NOT OK. Upvote for visibility
  9. 740 points: MuD_D's comment in The answer on Jeopardy today!
  10. 715 points: fenstabeemie's comment in Truth about Bitcoin mining
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#463 Binance spendet Gebühren, Tron 200x schneller als Ethereum & Bitcoin wird explodieren Bitcoin At $1 Million By 2020 Is Still Possible And Might ... COMO CALCULAR OS SATOSHI DE BITCOIN EM REAL COMO FUNCIONA. Bitcoin: Beyond The Bubble - Full Documentary - YouTube Long On Bitcoin, Crypto is LEGAL, Who Hates Ethereum?, New Ripple Partner & CryptoKitties Chain Cardano(ADA) Banned from Wiki? Bitcoin to $350k? Binance to issue Debit Card How I Earned $3,000 in FREE Cryptocurrency from the Binance Referral Program This Model Predicts a $100 Trillion Bitcoin Market Cap! (PlanB S2F Model) E se ti dicessi che il tempo per avere 1 Bitcoin intero sta per finire? BITCOIN MOVE INCOMING!  $425,000 Per BTC By 2024?!  Altcoins

Satoshi è una parte strutturale della criptovaluta Bitcoin, che è cento milionesimo di bitcoin. Tali piccole unità facilitano le transazioni con BTC. Il componente strutturale totale di 1 bitcoin (BTC) equivale a 1000 millibit (mBTC), 1.000.000 microbo (mkBTC) o 100.000.000 Satoshi. Data esatta è sc... Der Bitcoin-Kurs erreicht immer höhere Gefilde und notiert aktuell bereits über 1.100 Euro pro Bitcoin. Somit müssen mittlerweile viele Euros für einen Bitcoin bezahlt werden. Schöner wäre es doch, wenn Bitcoins „auf der Straße liegen“ würden und man diese nur noch einsammeln muss. 1 bit is equal to 0.000001 bitcoin. So converting a bitcoin amount to bits can be done by dividing the bitcoin amount by .000001. For instance: 42.66 bitcoins ÷ .000001 = 42,660,000 bits. To go from bits back to bitcoins, multiply the bits amount by .000001: 42,660,000 bits × .000001 = 42.66 bitcoins Satoshi is a structural part of the Bitcoin cryptocurrency, which is one hundred millionth of bitcoin.Such small units facilitate transactions with BTC. The total structural component of 1 bitcoin (BTC) is equivalent to 1000 millibits (mBTC), 1,000,000 microbe (mkBTC) or 100,000,000 Satoshi. Bitcoin Games has been making new waves by not only bringing hot new popular casino games playable with Bitcoin & Bitcoin Cash but also packaging new promotions that offer major perks for the players. Feerate is Bitcoin’s cost per square foot. Feerate is measured in Satoshis per byte. It basically means how many Satoshis (the smallest unit of account in Bitcoin) you are willing to pay for every byte (unit of size) of your transaction. At any given moment you can check here what’s the estimated required feerate that will get your tx included into the next block. This rate varies ... You can use our website to find out how much one satoshi or bitcoin costs in all kinds of currencies, how many satoshis there are in one US Dollar, how many Euro there are in one bitcoin. The calculator can convert currencies both ways – you can find out how many satoshis or bitcoins you need to buy one unit of a fiat currency, such as USD, EUR, GBP, CNY and others. Stablecoin Cold Storage Backed by Satoshis – Simba is a New Way of Holding Assets in Switzerland . When it comes to Switzerland, first of all, people have associations with first-class chocolate ... If with REX today we have a little less than 7000 EOS at the cost of 1 EOS, which is about $2.36, and if we calculate an average of about 5 satoshis every 30 EOS, then we will have about 35000 satoshis per day and in a month as much as 0.00350000 BTC, because it must be kept in mind that the CPU will completely reset after 3 days. In Bitcoin diamonds valued at thirty per coin which again was given it a ten to one on the fork. 03:04 So Bitcoin diamond and Zee classic shoes is trading at $300 per. 03:07 So just based off the fundamentals of what a Bitcoin fork is worth, we're still looking at Z classic doing another five to ten x from here, I'm extremely bullish on it. 03:20

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#463 Binance spendet Gebühren, Tron 200x schneller als Ethereum & Bitcoin wird explodieren

Cardano(ADA) Banned from Wiki? Bitcoin to $350k? Binance to issue Debit Card ----- My other channels and subscribe! https://www.youtube.com/cha... Bitcoin Rallies Higher, Binance Bullish, ... Huobi Lite & Cardano ADA 1000 Tx Per Second - Duration: 29:19. The Modern Investor 12,827 views. 29:19. Bitcoin Flash Crash Below $3900, System Failure ... BITCOIN Ritraccia + Binance lancia il "Cloud" + Kicktoken .. - CryptoMonday NEWS w06/'20 - Duration: 29:06. Tiziano Tridico 3,370 views. New; 29:06. Sanremo 2020: Amadeus e Fiorello su Bugo e ... This is likely one of the most reliable and important models you can find for future price prediction of Bitcoin. It predicts a fair BTC price of $55,000 after the halving and a $100,000 closer to ... Thanks for watching! For donations: Bitcoin - 1CpGMM8Ag8gNYL3FffusVqEBUvHyYenTP8 Heute geht's um folgende Themen: Binance spendet Gebühren für gute Zwecke, Update soll Tron 200x schneller als Ethereum machen & Bitcoin wird bald explodieren. 1.) Binance spendet Gebühren für ... Coinbase has an affiliate program that rewards you and your friend each with $10 in Bitcoin when you refer them. My favorite however is the Binance affiliate program. Unlike most other programs ... Bitcoin Technical Analysis & Bitcoin News Today: I'll use technical analysis on the Bitcoin price to make a Bitcoin price prediction. Watch the video to learn more! Watch the video to learn more ... Best-selling author and former hedge fund manager James Altucher is not backing down from his $1-million-dollar bitcoin call that he boldly made back in 2017... 💰 Make $1440 per day with Captcha Typing ... RECEBA GRATUITAMENTE CRIPTO NBX JÁ LISTADA VALOR 0.00000654 SATOSHIS CADA UND. - Duration: 14:35. Wagner Brito- Trader 88 views. 14:35. ESQUENTOU ...

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